I have attached the assignment below. Please choose one of those artworks from module 7 and compare it to a more contemporary work. I will also attach the powerpoint the teacher sent out.
· Modern art declared its opposition to the whimsy of the late Rococo style with Neoclassical art of the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
· Neoclassical art contained:
· harsh sculptural lines.
· a subdued palette.
· planar recession.
· Classical (especially Roman) subject matter.
· Neoclassical painters, such as Jacques-Louis David, were referred to as Poussinistes, for they embraced the linear, systematic approach of Nicolas Poussin.
1 – Fig. 19.1 Jacques-Louis David, The Oath of the Horatii (1784). Oil on canvas, 11’ x 14’.
· David was the preeminent Neoclassical painter in France.
· This painting, which features a Roman subject, was viewed by the French public as a call for revolution. Ever the opportunist, David joined the fight in 1789.
2 – Fig. 19.2 Angelica Kauffman, The Artist in the Character of Design Listening to the Inspiration of Poetry (1782). Oil on canvas, D: 24”.
· Female artist Angelica Kauffman carried the Neoclassical style to England.
· Notice the Classical columns, costume, and subject matter.
· Napoleon solidified his rule by commissioning artists, like David, to paint his portrait in a Neoclassical style. (See Fig. 21.44).
· The emperor’s sister (Pauline Borghese) had herself portrayed as the Greco-Roman goddess Venus. Notice the strong contours and the frigid rendering of the reclining female.
3 – Fig. 21.44 Jacques-Louis David, Napoléon Crossing the Alps (1800). Oil on canvas, 8’ 10” x 7’ 7”.
4 – Fig. 19.3 Antonio Canova, Pauline Borghese as Venus (1808). Marble, life-sized.
· Both Neoclassicism and Romanticism reflected the revolutionary spirit of the times.
· While Neoclassicism emphasized restraint of emotion, purity of form, and subjects that inspired morality, Romantic artists sought:
· extremes of emotion.
· virtuoso brushwork.
· a brilliant palette.
· Romantic artists, such as Géricault and Delacroix, were dubbed Rubenistes, for they embraced the painterly, emotive art of Peter Paul Rubens.
· Refers to contemporary shipwreck off the African coast (Fig. 19.4)
· Abolitionist sentiment
· Reference to Byron’s poem about ancient Assyrian king Sardanapalus (Fig. 19.5)
5 – Fig. 19.4 Théodore Géricault, Raft of the Medusa (1818-1819). Oil on canvas, 16’ x 23’.
6 – Fig. 19.5 Eugène Delacroix, The Death of Sardanapalus (1826). Oil on canvas, 12’ 11 1/2” x 16’ 3”. Louvre Museum, Paris, France.
7 – Fig. 19.6 Francisco Goya, The Third of May, 1808 (1814-1815). Oil on canvas, 8’ 9” x 13’ 4”.
· Spanish artist Goya depicts massacre of Spanish civilians by Napoleonic troops in Madrid
· Tragic subject, fluid brushwork, symbolism of color and line
· Some European artists traveled to Africa and the Middle East in the 19th century. This exposure to and fascination with the East (known as Orientalism) impacted the development of Western art in the 19th century.
· The stylistic differences between Ingres’ and Delacroix’s paintings of odalisques are indicative of the Neoclassical/Romantic divide.
8 – Fig. 19.7 Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Grande Odalisque (1814). Oil on canvas, 35 1/4” x 63 3/4”.
9 – Fig. 19.8 Eugène Delacroix, Odalisque (1845-1850). Oil on canvas, 14 7/8” x 18 1/4”.
10 – Fig. 19.9 Adolphe William Bouguereau, Nymphs and Satyrs (1873). Oil on canvas, 102 3/8” x 70 7/8”.
· The style of art with the least impact on the development of modern art was the most popular type of painting in its day.
· Academic art derived its style and subject matter from conventions established by the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris.
· Established in 1648, the Academy maintained a firm grip on artistic production for more than two centuries.
· The “modern” painters of the 19th century objected to Academic art because the subject matter did not represent real life and because the manner in which the subjects were rendered did not reflect reality as it was observed by the naked eye.
· Realist artists chose to depict subjects that were evident in everyday life, using an optical approach—rather than a conceptual approach—to rendering subjects.
11 – Fig. 19.11 Gustave Courbet, The Stone-Breakers (1849). Oil on canvas, 63” x 102”. Formerly Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, Dresden (destroyed in World War II).
· Set up the Pavilion of Realism (1855)
· Depicts lower-class workers on large-scale
· Naked woman seated in a Parisian park among men (Fig 19.12)
· Lacks the traditional glossy and realistic finish associated with academic art
· Parisian prostitute stares boldly at the viewer (Fig 19.14)
· Lacks academic modeling, tonal gradations, and subject matter
12 – Fig. 19.12 Édouard Manet, Le Déjeuner sur l’Herbe (Luncheon on the Grass) (1863). Oil on canvas, 7’ x 8’ 1”.
13 – Fig. 19.14 Édouard Manet, Olympia (1863-1865). Oil on canvas, 51 3/8” x 74 3/4”.
· The opening of trade between Japan and the West in the mid-19th century led to Japanese woodblock prints flowing into Paris and other cities.
· Some European artists collected Japanese works. This exposure to and fascination with Japanese art (known as japonisme) impacted the development of modern art in the late 19th century and early 20th century.
14 – Fig. 19.45 Katsushika Hokusai, Under the Wave off Kanagawa (also known as The Great Wave) (Edo period, c. 1837). Polychrome woodblock print.
15 – Fig. 19.46 Ando Hiroshige, Sudden Shower over Shin-Ōhashi Bridge and Atake (1857). Color woodblock print.
· Impressionist artists reacted against the constraints of Academic style and subject matter.
· They advocated painting outdoors (en plein air) and chose to render subjects found in nature.
· They studied the dramatic effects of atmosphere and light on people and objects.
· Using a varied palette of colors, they captured the actual colors—or local colors—of objects under different lighting conditions.
· Impressionist painters juxtaposed:
· complementary colors to reproduce the optical vibrations of looking at objects in full sunlight.
· primary colors to produce, in the eye of the spectator, secondary colors.
· Some scholars argue that both photography and Japanese prints had an impact on Impressionist compositions (i.e., cropping, high vantage point).
16 – Claude Monet, Impression, Sunrise (1872). Musée Marmottan, Paris.
17 – Fig. 19.19 Claude Monet, Rouen Cathedral (1894). Oil on canvas, 39 1/4” x 25 7/8”.
· Modern leisure activities of the bourgeoisie (Fig. 19.20)
· Effects of light on surfaces
· Female artists were often relegated to painting women and interiors (Fig 19.21)
18 – Fig. 19.20 Pierre Auguste Renoir, Le Moulin de la Galette (1876). Oil on canvas, 51 1/2” x 69”.
19 – Fig. 19.21 Berthe Morisot, Young Girl by the Window (1878). Oil on canvas, 29 15/16” x 24”.
· The Post-Impressionists of the late 19th century were drawn together by their rebellion against what they considered the Impressionists’ excessive concern for fleeting impressions and a disregard for traditional compositional elements.
· Post-Impressionists fell into two groups that parallel the stylistic polarities of the Baroque and the Neoclassical/Romantic periods.
· The works of Georges Seurat and Paul Cézanne maintained a more systematic approach to compositional structure, brushwork, and color.
· The works of Vincent van Gogh and Paul Gauguin coordinated line and color with symbolism and emotion.
20 – Fig. 19.23 Georges Seurat, A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte (1884-1886). Oil on canvas, 81” x 120 3/8”.
· Conventional Realist/Impressionist subject
· Pointillist technique: application of tiny dots of pure color (based on scientific color theory) to create form
· Traditional subject matter (landscape and still-life), but avant-garde approach to representation through:
· geometrization of nature.
· abandonment of scientific perspective.
· rendering of multiple views.
· emphasis on the two-dimensional surface of the canvas.
21 – Fig. 3.14 Paul Cézanne, Mont Sainte-Victoire Seen from Bibemus Quarry (c. 1897).
22 – Fig. 19.24 Paul Cézanne, Still Life with Basket of Apples (c. 1895).
· View from asylum window (Fig. 19.25)
· Notice expressive, swirling brushwork, thick impasto, and color contrasts
· Self-portrait in Arles (Fig. 19.26)
· Notice visible brushstrokes, vibrant color, and Japanese print on wall
23 – Fig. 19.25 Vincent van Gogh, Starry Night (1889). Oil on canvas, 29” x 36 1/4”.
24 – Fig. 19.26 Vincent van Gogh, Self-Portrait with Bandaged Ear (1889-1990). Oil on canvas, 23 5/8” x 19 1/4”.
· In Brittany to escape urban life (Fig (19.27)
· Uses arbitrary colors that emphasize flatness of picture plane
· In Tahiti to find “primitive” life (Fig. 19.15)
· Transforms tradition of reclining female nude
25 – Fig. 19.27 Paul Gauguin, Vision after the Sermon (Jacob Wrestling with the Angel) (1888). Oil on canvas, 28 3/4” x 36 1/2”.
26 – Fig. 19.15 Paul Gauguin, Te Arii Vahine (The Noble Woman) (1896). Oil on canvas, 38 3/16” x 51 3/16”.
27 – Fig. 19.29 Edvard Munch, The Scream (1893). Casein on paper, 35 1/2” x 28 2/3”.
· In their vibrant palettes and bravura brushwork, van Gogh and Gauguin foreshadowed Expressionism.
· Expressionism is the distortion of nature—as opposed to the imitation of nature—to achieve a desired emotional effect.
· Edvard Munch expressed feelings of despair by simplifying forms, heightening color contrasts, and leaving visible marks.
· European artists saw African, Oceanic, and Iberian sculpture in private collections or public ethnographic museums in Paris and other cities.
· This exposure to and fascination with non-Western art forms and principles (known as primitivism) impacted the development of modern art in the late 19th and early 20th century.
28 – Fig. 19.42 Ancestral couple, Dogon, Mali (c. 1800-1850). Wood, 2’ 4” high.
29 – Fig. 19.52 Uli statue, from New Ireland, Papua New Guinea (18th or early 19th century). Wood, ocher, and charcoal; 4’ 11 1/8” high.
30 – Fig. 20.8 Mask, Etumbi region, Republic of Congo. Wood, 14” high.
31 – Fig. 19.36 Auguste Rodin, The Burghers of Calais (1884-1895). Bronze, 79 3/8” x 77 1/8”.
· One 19th-century sculptor, Auguste Rodin, changed the course of the history of sculpture by applying principles of modern painting in his work.
· Rodin included in his sculptures a newfound realism of subject and technique, a more fluid or impressionistic handling of the medium, and a new treatment of space.
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