As an institution, Walden has long supported days of service and encouraged students, faculty, and staff to give back to their communities. In the companion Assignment for this module, you are developing a plan for a proposed Global Day of Service project.
Discussion 2: Global Day of Service and Your Specialization
As an institution, Walden has long supported days of service and encouraged students, faculty, and staff to give back to their communities. In the companion Assignment for this module, you are developing a plan for a proposed Global Day of Service project. For this Discussion, you will explain the Global Day of Service project you are proposing for your Assignment and offer feedback and support for your colleagues’ projects.
Important Note: You will share your ideas regarding your Module 5 Assignment in this Discussion. Be sure to read the instructions for this Discussion and the Module 5 Assignment prior to beginning work this week.
· Review the instructions for the Module 5 Course Project assignment.
· Review the Walden University sites regarding social change and Walden’s Global Days of Service. Consider the many meaningful opportunities found in early childhood programs, K–12 schools, and communities for enacting social change. How will the Walden Global Day of Service project you are proposing in this module’s Assignment support social change in your program and field?
· Review the Callahan et al. (2012) paper in the Learning Resources. Which of the eight features of social change will be reflected the most in your Day of Service project?
By Day 3 of Week 10
Post an explanation of the following:
· The Day of Service project you are proposing for this module’s Assignment
· How your proposed project would support social change in your program and field
· Which of the eight features of social change are integrated the most in your Day of Service project
For this Discussion, and all scholarly writing in this course and throughout your program, you will be required to use APA style and provide reference citations.
By Day 7 of Week 10
Read a selection of your colleagues’ posts.
Respond to at least two of your colleagues by offering feedback on their Day of Service projects and additional thoughts for how it would support social change in their programs and/or fields, and any additional features of social change you see as reflected in their project. Provide references to the Learning Resources, research, and/or prior professional experiences when appropriate.
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Expanding Our Understanding of Social Change
A Report From the Definition Task Force of the HLC Special Emphasis Project
Darragh Callahan, Elizabeth Wilson, Ian Birdsall, Brooke Estabrook-Fishinghawk, Gary Carson, Stephanie Ford, Karen Ouzts, Iris Yob
Expanding Our Understanding (July 2012) Page 2
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Expanding Our Understanding (July 2012) Page 3
Social change is defined broadly in terms of process and product to indicate that all kinds of
social change activity are welcomed and encouraged at Walden. As faculty members, students,
and alumni have indicated, even small acts can have large consequences, and many of these
consequences are unpredictable. The charge given to the Definition Task Force was to expand
the university’s definition of social change to provide more guidance for teaching, learning, and
assessing the social change mission at Walden. To that end, the Task Force offers the following
To bring about long-term solutions and promote lasting effects through the process of social
change, the following features may need to be considered as appropriate to the context and
purposes of each program. The features are grouped under the headings Knowledge, Skills, and
Attitudes, to encourage a holistic approach to preparing learners for social change. The
groupings, however, are defined by soft boundaries because each feature belongs primarily to
one group but may share some of the qualities of the other groups.
The scholar-practitioner model is particularly suited to social change because knowledge
applied to real-life situations is a scholar-practitioner’s goal. In the scholarly role, the
scholar-practitioner engages in active learning, critical reflection, and inquiry into real-
life dilemmas and possibilities. Careful study and research can reveal the causes and
correlates of social problems and suggest solutions and opportunities for promoting
2. Systems thinking
Many of the issues addressed by social change are complex because there may be
multiple causes and manifestations of the issue that require different responses at many
levels. Systemic thinking is a technique for developing insights into challenging
situations and complex subjects. It usually begins with analysis, which makes sense of a
system by breaking it apart to see how the parts work together and influence each
other. This may be followed by synthesis that aims to develop a set of responses that
address the situation in a comprehensive way. In the Walden community, finding
systemic solutions to challenging issues might be undertaken by multidisciplinary
collaborations in which scholar-practitioners from a number of colleges work together
to examine issues and propose multipronged responses.
Expanding Our Understanding (July 2012) Page 4
Those working toward positive social change can enhance their effectiveness by
reflecting on the experience. Reflection can be extrospective, that is, looking outward to
review the short- and long-term outcomes of a project and its implications for the
individuals, institutions, and communities with and for whom one is working. It can also
be introspective, that is, looking inward to examine what has been learned from the
process, including new insights into one’s motives, skills, knowledge, actions, and
reactions. Self-reflection allows for the contemplation of one’s professional and
personal development. Group reflection affords all stakeholders in a social change
project (scholar-practitioners, community partners, policy-makers, and beneficiaries) an
opportunity to process the experience and learn from each other. Reflection employs
critical-thinking and analytical skills. It can be carried forward by questioning and self-
inquiry and may depend on a willingness to see things from another’s perspective.
While reflection needs to be honest, it should also be caring and supportive, examining
strengths as well as weaknesses and successes as along with disappointments. While
reflection may look to the past, its purpose is forward-looking—to make future social
change activities more effective.
In the practitioner role, the scholar-practitioner engages in the application of
knowledge. Learning-by-doing, or experiential learning, has a long history of support
and success in education because it can infuse and sometimes lead to deconstructing or
constructing theoretical understandings within the realities of practical life in the
student’s personal growth, profession, or community. By using recursive loops between
scholarship and practice, both intellectual growth and better practice can occur—each
informing the other. Not merely knowing about theories but actually testing theories in
the context of everyday life is the foundation of a scholar-practitioner’s educational
process and contribution to social change.
Given the complexity of many of the issues addressed in social change efforts,
responsive action may be needed from many different sources. In these situations, the
Expanding Our Understanding (July 2012) Page 5
social change agent may want to build working relationships with other entities
including community leaders, service agencies, neighborhood coalitions, businesses,
religious congregations, and other local institutions. Apart from these types of civic
engagement, collaboration with scholars and practitioners in an array of professional
fields may bring a variety of perspectives, research, and applied knowledge.
Partnerships can unite the skills, knowledge, and energies needed to make a difference.
The ability to build a team, combined with leadership, project management, conflict
resolution, and communication skills, may be essential. A significant partner in social
change enterprises is the primary beneficiary; this person has a personal knowledge and
experience that can be invaluable in both analyzing a situation and proposing responses.
The primary beneficiary may be one individual or someone representing the
perspectives of a group of beneficiaries. Working collaboratively with primary
beneficiaries can be mutually educative and rewarding.
Advocacy is a matter of raising consciousness or being the “voice” for someone, some
group, or something that may or may not otherwise have a voice that can be heard. It
may involve political engagement, but it may also be a matter of supporting others as
they negotiate directly with the services and opportunities they need. In light of social
change, advocacy more widely aims to influence not only political but also economic
and social systems and institutions to protect and promote the dignity, health, safety,
and rights of people. Advocacy for an issue often takes the form of education that aims
to bring about a new understanding and awareness. Advocacy may also need to
encompass mentoring activities to build confidence and self-reliance in those whose
welfare is being promoted.
7. Civic engagement
Social change efforts can be supported and reflected in laws by policy-makers. Being
aware of the channels for communicating with civic leaders and knowing how to
effectively use those channels are often important when working for social change. All
institutions and groups—not just government entities—have their own politics, that is, a
prevailing mind-set, an internal structure, and channels of influence and power. Being
able to incorporate and negotiate these politics in support of social change requires
finesse and sensitivity. Understanding this before engaging with others can be helpful,
whether these others are legislators, local agencies and institutions, professional
associations, neighborhoods, ad hoc teams, or professional colleagues. Power
Expanding Our Understanding (July 2012) Page 6
relationships also exist between those working for social change and those who are the
primary beneficiaries. Mutual collaboration and power-sharing between the parties
involved can empower all toward more lasting social change.
8. Humane ethics
While a number of emotional effects may prompt one to engage in social change,
including empathy, sympathy, guilt, a feeling of satisfaction, and so on, one’s ethical
code can inform and direct one’s motivated engagement in social change. Humane
ethics is a system of moral principles that guide human conduct with respect to the
rightness and wrongness of certain actions. While personal codes of ethics may differ,
an underlying, common code of a humane ethic is characterized by tenderness,
compassion, sympathy for people and animals, especially for the suffering or distressed,
and concern for the health of the environment in which we live.
Analyzing Social Change
Figure 1 below shows each of the features—scholarship, systemic thinking, reflection, practice,
collaboration, advocacy, civic engagement, and humane ethics—on an axis ranging from 0 to 5.
Each social change activity or project could be mapped onto the axes to show the extent to
which it incorporates each feature. Joining the points along each axis produces a web for each
activity, an example of which is shown in red.
It is important to note that this tool is not intended to be an instrument to assess a particular
social change activity. Some projects and activities will be appropriately strong in one or more
areas but not necessarily in all. Rather, its purpose is to serve as a tool to analyze social change
activities that occur at Walden. It may reveal areas where an activity might be enhanced, and
importantly, it may reveal where the program for preparing students for social change might be
Further, all kinds of social change activities are encouraged, given the range of interests,
commitments, and opportunities for engagement among students, faculty members, and staff.
Most, if not all, kinds of activity can be represented as a web. The purpose of the web analysis
is ultimately to provide a tool to enlarge our vision of the range and features of social change
that seeks long-term solutions and promotes lasting effects.
Expanding Our Understanding (July 2012) Page 7
Figure 1. Web map showing each of the features.
Below are some examples of web maps of social change activities based on reports by students, faculty
members, and alumni in a recent research study: Perspectives on Social Change. Pseudonyms have been
Example No. 1. Bookcase Builders
Tom is a Rotarian and undertakes a number of service projects in the community with other Rotarians.
One such activity involves building bookcases. Some members of the club also volunteer with Habitat for
Humanity, which provides housing for needy families. Another member has connections with the local
school district and knew of a recent drive to improve the level of literacy in the community. Putting
these together, the club decided to build bookcases for the Habitat for Humanity homes and, through
the support of another club member who manages a bookstore, give each family a gift certificate to buy
books for the children to put in the bookcase.
This activity would certainly rate relatively high on Collaboration for the networking among Rotarians,
the local chapter of Habitat for Humanity, the school district, and the local book store. It also represents
a Humane Ethic in that it shows the responsiveness of this club to the need for these children to read
Expanding Our Understanding (July 2012) Page 8
well for their future success in life. As a practice, this need is supported by implicit knowledge about the
importance of motivating children and providing them with opportunities to read. so there should be a
showing on the Practitioner axis. Figure 2 below shows how this project might be mapped.
Figure 2. Web map of the bookcase builders project.
If Tom and his fellow club members want to pursue this project further they might ask whether they
may seek other possible partners for this endeavor, such as the reading tutors, the bookstore
salespeople, the parents, and even the children themselves. Others brought into the program may
contribute more Systemic Thinking to address the problem of illiteracy. The club members may also
consider follow-up activities using other features like Advocacy with a particular focus on mentoring,
Civic Engagement, or some Scholarly study of or research on the effectiveness of the project.
Example No. 2. Basket-Weavers as Story-Tellers
Arsi’s research took her to a remote and needy area of Jamaica, where many of the village women help
support their families through weaving baskets for sale in the tourist areas. Using a qualitative approach,
Arsi listened to and recorded the women’s stories of their lives in abject poverty, analyzed them for
common themes, and presented her findings as her dissertation. The information in this dissertation
could be invaluable to service agencies and others willing to work with these women to improve their
Expanding Our Understanding (July 2012) Page 9
The project is high on the Scholar axis, especially because it is research into a real-life problem that
needs informed solutions. It further exhibits significant Collaboration in that she established personal
relationships with the women so that they could tell her their stories. It is also strong in the Humane
Ethics dimension because it deals with real human need. Writing a dissertation also demands Reflection,
particularly because it requires some discussion of the meaning of the findings and their possible
implications. The dissertation ultimately enters the public domain and, as such, is a permanent voice for
the women whose stories it shares (Advocacy). Figure 3 below illustrates this example.
Figure 3. Web map of the basket-weavers as story-tellers project.
Arsi successfully graduated in 2011. If she wanted to continue with the project, she might share her
findings with policy-makers (Civic Engagement) and service providers, such as business people,
educators, and healthcare workers (Systemic Thinking). If she could disseminate her work through
publications and presentations, she would not only deepen her own understanding (Reflection) but
more directly provide valuable information to service agencies and others to apply in working with and
for these women (Practitioner).
Example No. 3. The Monthly Giver
Expanding Our Understanding (July 2012) Page 10
Many faculty members, students, and staff members sign up to make monthly donations to agencies,
such as United Way, through automatic payroll deductions. Given their busy schedules and
commitments, they look at this as making some kind of contribution to “the development of individuals,
institutions, and societies.” Does such an activity count as social change? Figure 4 below is an attempt
to map this activity.
One of the benefits of the mapping tool is that it is inclusive of a wide range of possible engagements in
social change. The monthly giver, like many others, is guided by a Humane Ethic and wants to act out of
compassion and care for the distressed and needy. She also understands that the organization she is
donating to is carefully managed, well informed, and handles donations responsibly, and she wants to
do something practical to support it (Practitioner). She also knows that her donation, because it is
combined with the donations of many others, can amount to a significant sum to support large-scale
projects in the community (Collaboration).
Figure 4. Web map of the monthly giver.
Example No. 4. Global Day of Service Participant
Expanding Our Understanding (July 2012) Page 11
During the annual Global Day of Service, Justin organized a small group of his co-workers to clean up the
road entrance to the town. This meant gaining permission from the town clerk, recruiting willing
workers, arranging for safety training, and equipping them with safety vests, gloves, and garbage bags.
Justin works full-time and is undertaking his studies part-time. He is also the father of three, and his wife
works full-time so he has a heavy load of responsibilities. He does not have a lot of spare time, but he
has committed the time to organize and prepare for this 1-day volunteer clean-up event.
Justin’s efforts are guided by an ethic of care for the environment (Humane Ethics) and are one means
through which he can apply his studies on the importance of protecting the eco-system in a practical
way (Practitioner). Partnering with the town clerk was mandatory in this case, but the Collaboration was
important for the safety of his team, and his recruiting efforts among his co-workers was an extension of
the Collaboration. In some senses, he served as an Advocate for the environment. The day following this
activity, he posted some thoughts on what the experience meant to him and his co-workers in a class
discussion forum (Reflection).
Figure 5. Web map of a Global Day of Service participant’s activity.
Example No. 5. Nurses for Women
Expanding Our Understanding (July 2012) Page 12
Claire is a member of a nurse’s organization working for an urban community offering
uncompensated services to more than 200,000 clients a year. One of her projects has involved
hiring a number of nurses who are certified to perform sexual assault examinations; this
expedites forensic examinations in pre-hospital agencies, such as emergency medical services
and fire departments. As a result, law enforcement can work with the victims of domestic
violence, abuse, or sexual assault on the spot and spare them the added trauma of going to an
emergency room. The program has seen a record number of perpetrators put behind bars—but
the work does not stop there. The organization helps the young women get back on their feet
in a number of ways, including connecting them with “Suits for Success” so they are dressed
suitably for job interviews, teaching them interview skills, getting them enrolled in school
programs, and helping them with grants and jobs, so that they can put what happened to them
as victims behind them.
Claire has multiplied her individual efforts with an eye toward lasting change in a number of
ways. She and her co-volunteers apply a systemic approach to addressing the needs of the
victims of sexual abuse: helping them gain the confidence, skills, opportunities, financial
support, and even the clothing to be successful in the job market so they can build success in
their lives (Systemic Thinking). She has increased her personal effectiveness by connecting with
other trained and certified nurses and with fire departments and emergency medical services
(Collaboration). She seems to have been moved to action by a Humane Ethic and has found a
way to use her skills and
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