After reading Chapter 5, provide a summary of the following Intelligence models:
AWASH WITH TERMINOLOGY
a. What is criminal intelligence?
• There are various definitions for criminal intelligence and no agreed standard terminology
• A common thread is that criminal intelligence is more than simply information
b. What is crime analysis?
• Equally difficult to define, with various organizations promoting different definitions
• Crime intelligence is a term designed to bring together crime analysis and criminal intelligence analysis
c. Data, information and knowledge?
• The traditional role of the collator has been replaced by knowledge workers who do more than simple information storage
• Old knowledge – criminal intelligence; New knowledge – crime analysis
• ‘information + analysis = intelligence’; fails to recognize the wide range of data and information sources that are of variable applicability and quality.
d. DIKI continuum
• Data are the observations and measurements we can make about crime
• Information is data with greater relevance and purpose
• Knowledge is data and information with added context, meaning, and a particular interpretation
• Intelligence‐ action part of the process. Knowledge products can generate understanding, but intelligence products are supposed to generate action
e. From knowledge to intelligence
• For conversion of knowledge into actionable intelligence, analysts have to know their client’s environment and manage that relationship
LEVELS OF CRIME INTELLIGENCE
• Tactical ‐ Support for front‐line areas, investigations and other operational areas in taking case‐specific action to achieve enforcement objectives
• Operational ‐ Supporting area commanders and regional operational commanders in planning crime reduction activity and deploying resources to achieve operational objectives
• Strategic ‐ Aiming to provide insight and understanding, and make a contribution to broad strategies, policies and resources
a. NIM levels
• Level 1 – local
• Level 2 – Regional
• Level 3 ‐ National
b. Viewpoint: A practitioner’s perspective on the National Intelligence Model
• The intelligence cycle is nicely cyclical, but does not emphasize policing or the role of decision‐makers
• Gill’s cybernetic model – a useful and instructive model but may be more academically relevant than operational?
• SARA model – a relevant model that doesn’t specifically include decision makers but is action oriented with an evaluative component
a. NIM business model
• Original model has distinct parallels with SARA.
• New approach has a different definition of knowledge, with more prosaic and bureaucratic meaning, relating to familiarity with current legislation and case law, codes of practice, manuals of standards and ACPO guidance etc.
b. The 3‐i model
• Analysis Interprets Criminal Environment, and Influences Decision‐makers who have an Impact on the Criminal Environment.
CAN MODELS REFLECT REALITY?
• Time constraints often limit the ability of a model to be followed correctly
• NIM terminology has been criticized for complicating a simple process
• Models that emphasize relationships may be better for analysts to follow and understand
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